Salmonella Shigella agar comprises of bile salts, sodium citrate, brilliant green, enzymatic digest of casein, beef extract, enzymatic digest of animal tissue, thiosulphate, ferric citrate, neutral red and agar. The inclusion of Bile Salts, Sodium Citrate and Brilliant Green serve to inhibit gram-positive, coliform organisms and inhibit swarming Proteus spp., while allowing Salmonella spp. to grow. Beef Extract, Enzymatic Digest of Casein, and Enzymatic Digest of Animal Tissue provide sources of nitrogen, carbon, and vitamins required for organism growth. Lactose serves as a carbohydrate source in Salmonella Shigella Agar. Differentiation of enteric organisms is achieved by the incorporation of lactose in the medium. Organisms which ferment lactose produce acid which, in the presence of the neutral red indicator, results in the formation of red/pink colonies. Lactose non-fermenters form colorless colonies. Sodium thiosulfate and Ferric Citrate permit detection of hydrogen sulfide by the production of colonies with black centers. Neutral red turns red in the presence of an acidic pH, thus showing fermentation has occurred.